FOR THE PEACE IN THE WORLD
Assisi, 18-20 october 2002
The third millennium seemed to open to the sound of a single order word: globalization. Globalization of the communications, of the commerce, of the science, of the culture: the planet, in virtue of the new technologies, always seems to share several interests and like contents. What lacks to be shared, now, among the industrialized countries and the poor countries, is the wealth: assure all the inhabitants of the globe worthy life conditions of the human being. In other words, an ethical conception of the such a development must be globalizzata to allow everybody a dignified existence, with an availability of sufficient food with guarantee growth and health, a house, the education and a work. The ethical mission, and the moral challenge, of the rich countries for the third millennium, then-it must be this: take the wealth where this is unknown, through the realization of economic investments able to fill, in the shortest time as soon as possible, really, the current huge difference among the various areas, nord-sud, but also west and east, with a world excessively unequalized. Along this line the Group of Experts I have the honour to chair, of concert with the "Comitato di collegamento di Cattolici per una Civiltà dell’Amore", on the wake of researches promoted since the first 1990s, invites to follow a new way: use the economic resources produced by the burn of the nuclear materials of the atomic warheads dismantled by the superpowers, in these fifteen years of non-belligerent and disarmament, to realize development projects in the poor countries. If it is true that the conversion of fissile disarmament materials will last more than twenty years, the realization of such project can represent a important keystone to attack the poverty and underdevelopment problem, producing a virtuous circle of peace and wealth indeed. This hypothesis requires the cooperation of the international establishments put at the programs of nuclear conversion; of Governments of the Countries with nuclear central used for the conversion; of electric shopkeepers and, at last, of international interlocutor that collects and guarantees the distribution of entrances obtained from the employment of the war fuel for the electric power production. Therefore, a wide coalition, than we augur ourselves can concretely be realized, to Assisi, from the 18 to 20 next October, when to the international Summit for the peace in the world we introduce the definitive writing of the Study of technical-economic feasibility "Program of conversion of the nuclear warheads in development program in the south of the World", of which the present document constitutes one first synthesis.
Just from the historical process of nuclear disarmament it is possible to address new resources in order to contrast the hunger and the poverty in the world, problems of which the entire humanity he is more and more sensitive to and all the levels, from the simple citizen until the Governments and to the Leaders of the Nations. This new situation, that it is in the heart of the civilization not only western, but of all the humanity, covers a deep ethical motivation. Such new resource to be destined to the development providentially places himself in a period of big transformation at international level, while the ethical request grows strong, also in the developed countries, by from the public opinion and of social organisms as the ONG for a greater engagement in favor of the poor countries, obviously always more in the need. This circumstance would constitute the chance for a new help policy by the rich countries towards the developing ones. Therefore a declaration of engagement of the nations more developed on the theme "by the disarmament to the development" would constitute an ethical declaration how much more is always noticed with urgency for the safety of the peoples and the peace in the world.
The program of conversion of the nuclear warheads in development projects in the poor countries contributes, for several reasons, the safety of the nations and to the peace in the world, in particular at this historical moment. In fact with the conversion in new economic resources of the mass destruction tools, like the nuclear warheads in disarmament, the risk of apocalypses of planetary impact would be reduced and a new mentality would be created about the security and the defence of the nations. The program which will be discussed in Assisi also foresees a strong impulse towards development projects in the poor countries removing to the root many causes of poverty, of ignorance mistrust so towards a better future by millions of people and above all of young people.
Following the disarmament agreements between the nuclear superpowers, since the INF first Treaty of December 8th, 1987 the international process of conversion of the huge amount of nuclear explosive of the arsenals is begun. The amount of extractable energy from the uranium above all military is at least equal to the electricity consumed from the whole worldwide population in a year, to which would be added the one produced by the conversion of the plutonium after the international agreements. The methodologies of the conversion of the uranium are already available and operating from the Usa-Russia agreement of 1993 with the American program "Megatons to Megawatts" and the economic resources coming from the conversion of the uranium, are taken back from the literature of the sector and were already analysed in the study of tecnichal-industrial feasibility of the Intenational Symposium "Conversion of nuclear warheads for peaceful purposes" of June 15-17th, 1992 in Rome.
The modernization of the Study of 1992 considers alone the economic dividend coming from the conversion of the uranium, correspondent approximately to50 billions of USD if it is reported to the entire arsenal in disarmament. The modernization of the Experts does not comprise instead the economic appraisal of the conversion of the plutonium, because they are still from defining to international level the various industrial and technological aspects of this operation, that it is the result only of a recent agreement between USA and Russia of January 2002.
Beyond to the directed economic benefits generated from the conversion, other less obvious aspects of the dividend of the peace exist, not easy to quantifiable but undoubtedly important:
- the cost reduction of stoccaggio for indefinite times of military fissile material
- the reduction of the risk of ulterior proliferation of nuclear armaments
These elements configure themselves like reduction of costs ( expense publish military and/or national emergency), realizable by means of the nuclear conversion.
In absence of necessary active political to expressly address these meaningful resources in specific actions of development into poor countries, the economic dividend of the epochal conversion nuclear would be dispersed. Instead, auguring a wise active politics, the Study modernized and elaborated from the Experts promotes an integral development of the men and the people that is the connatural condition to balance of well-being that allows to interact in harmonic and constructive way with the sollicitations and the coming from changes from the surrounding atmosphere, above all in era of the globalization. In particular the Study wants to use the resources of the nuclear conversion for an immense program against the hunger and the poverty of hundred of million men, women and children who can be gained only promoting an harmonic development of those populations. To make sure that the destination of the dividend is really directed to the development, we reccomend to acting above level governs of the countries which are directly involved in the realization of the conversion of military uranium and of a suitable international agency. So they first can destine the dividend to development. For this reason it must be needs to support the "reciprocal persuasion" among governments, which is sovereign but interdependent and that can put the issue of the dividend of the nuclear conversion in the most general picture of their political and economical relations. In this moment, besides the traditional bilateral relationships, an important level of plurilaterale reciprocal persuasion exists: the group of the 8 most industrialized countries (G8). To this action of the governments we must always to add a clearer position by the public opinion and of his organized expression forms (ONG, voluntary service, ecc) that they can encourage the political choices, especially when (HIPC, remission of the bilateral debit of the PVS)they are on clear and credible aims concentrated.
The role of the international institutions, above all those universal, is equally important, because they can support the public opinion with the predisposition and the spread of applied searches, of studies of economic feasibility and other initiatives.
The operating modes really to direct the dividend towards development purposes, will have to be the practical result of the initiative of the interested governments to such political decision.
However it would be hoped that the operating modes satisfied the following necessities:
- to allow the process to be visible, identifyable and "monitorable" not only in the interest of the governments, which can attest their engagement in favor of the development, but also of the public opinion. To such a purpose a simple multilateral structure can be adopted, whose denomination support the identification of the content of the action, for instance "from the disarmament to the development", and however linked up with the United Nations;
- to allow that the process is actually based on the conviction than the development sustainable must be hit the centre on the person, increasing the value of the operating local initiative and the stable presence of organisms for the development;
- to be able to identify specific development aims, as programs for Africa, or as articulate programs of PVS mole renewable energies;
- to be able to realize development actions not only with the support of economic initiatives of directed of income and of satisfaction expansion of essential needs, but also initiatives which constitute a direct contribution to the peace.
The experience of the economists, the scholars and at last the common man consider that the raising difference between North and South of the world rather than decreasing is in increase and this after 50 years by systematic struggle made principally the underdevelopment with the methodology of the big interventions. Meantime it was born of time a form more organized than small development interventions above all in the South of the world which gave remarkable results also in terms of relationship costs/benefits, decidedly more raised of the one concerning the big interventions. This methodology is constituted of microprojects and was range ahead from the missionaries', from the ONG and now also from a few international public institutions, as recently also from the World Bank with the improvement of the microfinance experiences. Such methodology marries well the strongly present culture of the small enterprise and the handicrafts, productive model in Italy and that can be promoted according to the local specificities also in new development areas above all with few resources to be used. So in the updating of the study the MICROPROGETTI/MICROIMPRESE/MICROFINANZA methodology which is maybe a new formula for the development deserves an adequate widening, specifically directing the resources on little and aimed radical interventions against the poverty and the underdevelopment.
In favor of such new methodology play several positive aspects, which are examined in detail in the Study of Feasibility from the Experts, as for instance:
1. The interventions are necessarily required by the local population and aimed very much
2. The interventions can be radical in the local situations
3. Do not require a big operating structure to be accomplished
4. Do not involve much expenses for the organization of the intervention (about the 10% of the total)
5. The interventions are directly realized with the engagement and the local labour
6. They do not require much time for their realization, from as there is the liquid asset
7. Take up you financial for a microproject euro can arrive up to 100 for effective intervention
8. The little interventions do not perturb the local culture but they put her in conditions of progressive change.
9. They do not have socio-culturali traumatic phenomena induced by the intervention and therefore new social costs do not ripen.
Following the agreements of nuclear disarmament, the conversion of the military uranium already in act (and we wish soon also of the plutonium) the historical opportunity offers in order that a solid program of development projects can set out, if possible by microprojects, microenterprises and microfinance in the South of the world, needy of know-hows and appropriate technologies also in countries in transition where the know-how and the technologies do not lack, but they need instead of microenterprises as new fabric handicrafts and young companies to support the big economic capacity of their peoples.
Prof. Francesco Bistoni - Magnifico Rettore dell'Università degli Studi di Perugia
Prof.ssa Simona Beretta - Docente di Politiche Economiche e Istituzioni Internazionali - Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore - Milano
Prof. Francesco Bistoni - Rettore Magnifico - Università degli Studi di Perugia
Dott. Paolo De Magistris - già Responsabile del Ciclo del Combustibile per le Centrali Nucleari dell'Enel
Prof. Enrico Jacchia - Direttore "Centro Studi Strategici" - Università LUISS - Guido Carli di Roma
Rev.mo P. Prof. Joseph Joblin S.J. - Docente della Pontificia Università Gregoriana di Roma
Prof. Ferruccio Marzano - Docente di Economia dello Sviluppo - Università degli Studi "La Sapienza" di Roma
Prof. Ignazio Musu - Docente di Economia Politica - Università degli Studi di Venezia
Prof. Renato A. Ricci - Presidente Emerito della Società Europea di Fisica di Legnaro (PD) - Past Presidente della Società Italiana di Fisica
Ing. Giuseppe Rotunno - Ingegnere Nucleare - Segretario Nazionale Comitato di Collegamento di Cattolici per una Civiltà dell'Amore di Roma
Prof. Stefano Zamagni - Docente di Istituzioni di Economia - Università degli Studi di Bologna